SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT - UNDERSTANDING SOME OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING
1. " Single industries easily can seem negligible when examined within the global scale of the Paris Agreement. This is particularly the case for international shipping because it is very much an industry that’s out of sight, a phenomenon known as "sea blindness."
Despite emissions exceeding those of Germany, the shipping industry remains outside any international agreement to limit its emissions. While policy is ultimately necessary, key actions should be taken by banks to begin steering the industry towards even preparing for decarbonisation.
Both the U.N.’s International Maritime Organization and the European Union are working towards greenhouse policies for international shipping, at least one of which will be implemented by 2023.
Despite this being only a few years away, only two banks of the more than 40 active in shipping consider the efficiency of ships they finance."
2. Impacts of shipping in the South-East Marine Region of Australia
"The major hazard associated with the discharge of contaminated ballast water is the introduction of exotic marine species to the local marine environment, and translocations of existing marine pests to new locations (for example, transporting the North Pacific sea–star from Tasmanian waters to mainland waters)
Establishment of exotic species can cause the alteration of entire ecosystems and habitat and the extinction of indigenous species by predation or competition (ANZECC, 1996a). The effects of introduced species increase with time and are generally irreversible.
Introduced marine species include fish, invertebrates, and seaweeds. 9 Exotic marine species that can be attributed to ballast water, and are of particular concern in the South-east Marine Region, are listed in Table 2.1."
3. In Western Australian waters, there are 60 known non-native marine species that have become established. Most are temperate species, with only six that are exclusively tropical. The greatest number of introduced species is found in the south-west corner of the State – 46 in Perth and Fremantle waters, 25 in Albany and 24 in Bunbury.
Unlike many other types of environmental impacts, invasions of introduced marine species can be irreversible.
4. "As well as contributing to global warming ... ship pollution includes toxic compounds and particles that cause a host of other health hazards. A 2016 Chinese-led study found the shipping boom in east Asia has caused tens of thousands of premature deaths a year, largely from heart and lung disease and cancer.
When diesel ship engines burn poor-quality fuel, their smoke stacks release oxides of nitrogen and sulfur as well as carbon. These pollutants, as well as contributing to greenhouse warming, are highly toxic. Sulfur dioxide readily dissolves in water, creating acid rain that causes harm to both people and the environment."
5. "India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan are popular for ship scrapping. In Bangladesh for example, 40,000 mangroves — trees that stabilize many tropical coasts and are habitats and breeding grounds for many species — were chopped down in 2009 alone to accommodate shipbreaking yards. The pollution from scrapping there has caused an estimated 21 fish and crustacean species to become extinct. And reportedly, each week one worker dies and seven are injured in the scrap yards of Bangladesh."
6. "The IMO found that international shipping contributes about 13% and 12% of annual global NOx and SOx emissions, respectively, from anthropogenic sources reported in the latest IPCC Assessment Report (AR5).
This sector contributed an average of 2.6% of global annual CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels during the period 2007 – 2012. (The figure for 2012 was 2.2%.)
The IMO also found that shipping CO2 emissions are projected to increase by 50% to 250% in the period to 2050, despite fleet average efficiency improvements of about 40%, because of the expected growth in shipping activity."
7." The 2006 Maritime labour Convention established universal rights for seafarers, but they remain among the most vulnerable group of workers. There’s not much access to lawyers and doctors at sea and the practice of registering ships under flag states with lower human-rights standards persists.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES AND RESPONSES TO CREATING THERMALLY COMFORTABLE HOMES FOR AUSTRALIA'S CLIMATE ZONES
THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF HEMP LIME BUILDINGS
1. Hemp Lime Bio-composite as a Building Material in Irish Construction (2012) Patrick Daly, Paolo Ronchetti and Tom Woolley
The STRIVE report prepared for Ireland’s Environment Protection Agency collated a growing body of international research on hemp lime and reviewed its increasing application in construction, including some significant demonstration projects
2. Hygrothermal modelling of Lime-Hemp concrete used as a building material and indoor climate buffering characterisation, Dubois, S., Evrard, A., Lebeau, F
This study showed that LHC can be classified as having excellent moisture buffering performance and confirms the general idea of agro-sourced materials being good indoor climate regulators.
3. Transient hygrothermal behaviour of hemp lime materials Evrard, A PhD, Université Catholique De Louvain, 2008
“High inertia of LHM wall components allows them to dampen the effects of daily variation of outside climate, and to delay the effects of peak values or sudden variations. They also regulate the inside level of temperature and humidity (TBV and MBV).”
4. Thermographic Data - The British Research Establishment (BRE) and the Suffolk Housing Project
Comparative thermographic data was collected from the houses built for Suffolk Housing Society as part of a social housing development. The scheme involved the construction of eighteen dwellings, 16 of which were built using conventional masonry construction methods and materials and 2 of which were using Hemp Lime construction.
5. Interview with Ian Pritchett Chairman and Technical Director of Lime Technology in the UK
Interview about the characteristics of the material as a built element of a building including the vapour permeability and thermal insulation properties of hemp-lime building materials.
8. Tom Woolley & Rachel Bevan house build.flv
Architects Tom Woolley & Rachel Bevans show a video of their hempcrete house with an explanation of the low carbon, low energy materials for their build.
1. Hempcrete as a Fire Retardant Building Material – Steve Allin demonstrates hemp lime building material’s resistance to burning
2. Strive Report - Hemp lime bio-composite as Building Material in Irish Construction, Daly P., Ronchetti.P., and Wooley.T
Importantly the fire testing carried out to EN 1365-1 on a lightweight wall mix with timber frame infill indicates that 60 minutes fire resistance is possible. Given that masonry blocks are stronger and denser these may achieve similar or better levels of performance, depending on the performance of the mortar in particular given the finding of the 2007 Lime Technology Study.
3. The impacts of natural or 'legacy' household furnishings vs modern synthetic furnishings on fire behaviour in household fires
This video, made by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Testing) shows the danger of "modern" fires compared to the danger of fires occurring 40 years ago. Keep your eye on the clock.
CASE STUDY - Low Impact Materials – The Triangle, Northern Road, Swindon,
This Hemp Lime housing development comprises 16 two-bed houses, 13 three-bed houses, 7 four-bed houses, 4 one-bed apartments, and 2 two- bed apartments. There are homes for Intermediate Rent and Rent To Homebuy, as well as homes for affordable rent to local people registered with Swindon Borough Council.
HEMP IN RESTORATIVE FARMING
1. Converting pasture to small and medium scale sustainable hemp growing
2. The suitability of Hemp to organic agriculture (Montford and Small 1999b).
3. Integrating hemp in organic farming systems: A focus on the United Kingdom, France and Denmark
HEMP IN SOIL BIOREMEDIATION
Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land – Journal of Environmental Radioactivity Vol 81 Issues 2-3, 2005, Pages 131–141 Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research.
“The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions.”